Somalia: Colonialism to Independence to Dictatorship, 1840-1976
Somalia is the classic example of a failed state. In the past two decades, there have been 14 attempts to reconstitute state authority, and the country has been constantly plagued by clan-based armed groups, Islamic extremists, regional proxy wars, terrorists pledging allegiance to al-Qaeda, pirates, kidnappings, and famine.But Somalia is not hopeless, and understanding its past is key to understanding the country’s current challenges and possibilities for the future.Colonialism: 1840-1960Between 1840 and 1886, the British East India Company established a series of trade treaties with various Somali chiefs. Italy also had a hand in the early establishment of Somalia and marked out the boundaries of Italian Somaliland in the south between 1897 and 1908. Ethiopia claimed the Ogaden region of western Somaliland in 1897.The first uprising against colonialism occurred when Somalis sought to push the Ethiopians out of the Ogaden region but then expanded to target European colonists as well. The Dervish State, headed Mohammed Abdille Hassan, an Ogaden himself who the British referred to as “Mad Mullah,” conducted a religious-based war of resistance against the Ethiopians and British from 1899 to 1920, resulting in the death of nearly one third of northern Somalia’s population. Great Britain defeated Hassan in 1920.
Intresting Prespective of Somalia Hitory Enough 101